Solar power technology is clean, quiet and renewable but has a relatively low energy density of around 1 kW/m2. The lack of a continuous power supply reduces their average daily output to 3 – 7 kWh/m². Since the infrared part is not utilized to produce electricity, conventional photovoltaic (PV) cells use only about half of the solar spectrum. On the other hand, a long warm-up time and high radiation flux are necessary for solar Stirling engine (SE) to start to work.
The hybrid system can largely overcome these problems. The design combines the PV and thermal energy storage-integrated thermal field emission (TFE) technologies in the same concentrating solar power (CSP) system, providing a great potential in terms of efficiency and energy production per unit area. A photon-enhanced gate electrode creates on the cathode surface an electrostatic field large enough to compensate space charge field and initiates TFE process.
In the cathodes with nano-structured surfaces, the current density can reach values close to the field emission limit but the output voltage is low. The solution is to convert direct current (DC) into alternating current (AC) and/or join in series several modules to connect them directly to the grid or loads. The TFE module placed in a glass envelope or vacuum tube allows to employ an existing dish or PV-thermal (PVT) rooftop concentrator. Also, a thermionic fission electric cell (TE-FEC) based system for underground nuclear power installation could be utilized.
The Lorentz theory is applied for solar and electrical-in-nature nuclear energy development. Long before quantum mechanics, Lorentz theorized that some disturbances, like waves, could be transmitted with traveling particles through the vacuum without moving it. The Lorentz metric satisfies so-called non-propagation waves that described by the Klein-Gordon equation and dispersion relation w2=c2k2+wc2. Here c is a characteristic velocity and wc is a constant.
For a particle of the rest mass m, the cutoff or Compton frequency wc =mc2/ , where h is Planck's constant and mc2 equals the sum of the associated kinetic, internal and potential energies. Lorentz was ahead of his time and his approach led to the natural introduction of the field values (group velocity and intensity of de Broglie waves) into Maxwell's equations, and antimatter (antiparticles or modes with negative group velocity) into Newtonian mechanics.
At that time, some scientists chose to postulate constancy of the light velocity to explain why the earth appears not to rotate around the sun in the Michelson experiment. To this day, about $700 billion have been spent repeating the same systematic error and ignoring basic algebra rule. As the Lorentz transformation equally applies to all wave motions, the anisotropic values of the light velocity are used in Einstein's original manuscript and all applications.
STATE OF THE ART
The solar unit is using a beam splitter or diffraction grating - Fresnel lens to reflect UV - IR into TFE and visible light to PV panels. It enables to harvest electricity from heat energy of the environment, including thermo-PV and nano-antenna arrays. To reduce the costs, a solar-powered communication and navigation unit is designed. A breed-burn reactor based on the direct energy conversion and proven light water reactor technology could save billions of dollars anually by burning nuclear waste efficiently.
INNOVATION: Hybrid PV- CSP Unit Design & Breed-Burn Reacter Design
To optimize the use of solar energy, a secondary dichroic mirror thermally decouples the modules by directing visible into commercial PV cells and ultraviolet-infrared into thermal receiver. Solar energy is absorbed in the TFE unit and electromagnetic energy is redirected by an absorber or wire mesh via apertures to the signal receptor. The cooling fluid is boiled when cooling the PV cells and TFE anode, and superheated at the thermal receiver/storage (Fig. 1).
Radio and optical telescope technologies are adapted to deliver concentrated light to the PV/TFE units at minimum cost. The multi-purpose antenna can be used to increase grid resilience by better correlation in time and measuring critical characteristics of the conventional, wireless or single wire power lines. A small-scale test device will be constructed to explore the effects of dichroic films on the amount of electrical energy captured by PV and TFE modules.
The test device is designed to allow independent movements of the system components and to test different types of samples with adjustable temperature. It consists of two PV panels, beam splitters or dispersive lens and sample holders in a vacuum chamber. In a tunneling photo-effect enhanced TFE cell, the cathode (8) produces electrons and the gates (10) extract them (Fig. 2).
The nuclear process, involving a fuel cycle without uranium enrichment and plutonium isolation, would avoid keeping the gaseous fission fragments restrained in fuel elements, an innovative strategy used to control a breed-burn reactor. Also, our goal is a medical isotope production unit driven by a neutron generator with post-acceleration. The medical isotope production unit that almost-entirely eliminates the waste byproduct and plutonium proliferation can serve as a nuclear power system prototype. The on-line gas-phase extraction method of isotopes from a fuel with less than 20% uranium enrichment could overcome the drawbacks of current fission isotope production systems, the excessive generation of radioactive waste and plutonium proliferation.
In Fig.3, reactor vessel 19 houses blanket 22, booster 21 with gas fission product traps, primary heat exchangers 16, compact heat exchangers 17, feedback loops 15, ion source 20, monitoring system 12, TE-FEC based radial core regions 25 and inner reflector 28. Medical unit: 2 - high-voltage power source, 3 - ion source, 4 - accelerating tube. 8 - cooling system, 9 - graphite.
Distributed Power, Information and Monitoring System Synchronization
To ensure delivery of electric power with the minimum lost in distributed grid, new standards are needed. In Figures 4, a triangle setup with multi-purpose antennas, counters and radio or optical links are used to synchronize the distributed grid. The antennas and time data from GPS are used to analyze the energy transfer or the frequency and power factors of the transmission system.
In addition to the GPS clocks, celestial radio sources such as the sun or cosmic masers can serve as natural frequency standards without fear of terrorist attacks. For two signals starting and ending at the same point, we have the traditional Sagnac experiment on closed paths. The result should be identical in the Sagnac experiments on open paths. However, there is a zero time difference when the propagation time difference is measured at two points.
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